Sweet love, renew thy force; be it not said
Thy edge should blunter be than appetite,
Which but to-day by feeding is allay’d,
To-morrow sharpen’d in his former might:
No prize for knowing I didn’t write those lines — or even that they’re down to The Bard of Avon. What he was on about here is the distinction between genuine (sweet) love and lust (appetite), the problem being that the latter may be assuaged today but will surely return tomorrow. Had we, by some Star Trek-like device, been able to secure his services for this piece, Shakespeare, master of the double-entendre, would quickly have spotted an opportunity in his new role as pop-sci scribe. For sweet read sugar: for appetite addiction.
Gary Taubes considers sugar to be the root of most western illnesses. Photograph: Alamy
The combination can be toxic, as the estimable US journalist Gary Taubes has argued over the last 15 years. His latest book The Case Against Sugar has just come out and I’m keen to give it a plug. In so doing I should point out that we’ve also done our best in these pages to make the same case — particularly in relation to cancer. However, it’s a little while since we wrote specifically on sugar, diet and cancer, mainly because nothing really new has caught my eye. Reading again the most relevant of our blog stories I thought they did a pretty good job (as Shakespeare might have said, being a chap not known for modesty). Three I thought worth looking at again are:
Biting the Bitter Bullet: how obesity and cancer quite often come hand-in-hand and how it is that we’re seduced into eating more and more of something that can help us get fat and ill.
A Small Helping For Australia: makes the point that this is a global problem (even though Australia’s wonderful).
The Best Laid Plans in Mice and Men..: artificial sweeteners aren’t the solution – just another problem.
Actually, there is one recent result we might mention — from Ken Peeters, Johan Thevelein & colleagues at the University of Leuven. Bearing in mind the long-established ‘Warburg effect’ by which cancer cells switch the energy supply system that breaks down glucose from respiration (using oxygen) to fermentation (making lactate), they looked at yeast cells that grow fastest when they ferment — much as cancer cells grow quicker than normal cells. Rather remarkably, they discovered a hitherto unknown way in which fermentation links to a key pathway controlling cell proliferation. That pathway centres around a protein called RAS that we met in Mission Impossible.
This finding does not show that eating lots of sugar gives you cancer but what it does show is a way by which, if yeast cells ‘eat’ more sugar, they grow faster. It seems quite possible that the underlying mechanism might work in human cells (the human version of the protein that links sugar metabolism to RAS, called SOS1, works in yeast) — giving an explanation for the well-known fact that the more sugar you eat the fatter you are likely to become. And what we do know is that obesity does raise cancer risk.
I dare say Gary might reckon this result worth a footnote in the second edition of: The Case Against Sugar by Gary Taubes is published by Portobello Books (£14.99).
Peeters, K. et al., (2017). Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate couples glycolytic flux to activation of Ras. Nature Communications 8, Article number: 922 doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01019-z.